Queen Anne, daughter of James II and the last of the Stuarts, inherited a country that was bitterly divided politically.
He spent much of his early life in exile, following the execution of his father during the English Civil War.
James himself was rescued from confinement at St. Inhe became an officer in the French army and saw active service under the Vicomte de Turenne.
Unfortunately for him, the English people viewed Catholicism with great fear and mistrust. There was at this time little prospect of his becoming king, Charles being still a young man and more than capable of fathering legitimate children in view of the number of illegitimate ones he already had.
James reclaimed the title Duke of York. As Duke of York he was heavily involved in the slave trade, the British end of it being monopolised by the Royal African Company, of which he was head, and which the Stuart family set up when they retook the throne in As Lord High Admiral he commanded the navy, and a little-known fact is that the city of New York was named after him following its capture by English forces in The following year, he commanded the defeat of Dutch forces at the Battle of Lowestoft.
He suffered when the king was forced to introduce the Test Act ofremoving Catholics from official positions. For a period between andhe remained in Scotland, where the religious controversy was made even more complex by the strength of the Presbyterians.
Succession When Charles died without a legitimate child, in his fifties, James was next in line for the thrones of both England and Scotland. He succeeded on the throne on February 6, He was crowned on April 23,at Westminster Abbey. However, he never took the Scottish coronation oath.
Catholicism Many people in Britain were extremely concerned about a Catholic monarch. Attempts had already been made, unsuccessfully, to exclude him from the succession.
The first challenge to his kingship came as soon as June 11,when the Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of King Charles II and a Protestant, arrived in the West Country and proclaimed himself king. He was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on July 5 and executed at the Tower of London a few days later.
Public opinion became even more concerned when James tried to create a standing army. Anne has the distinction of being the last Englishwoman to marry the heir to the English throne before Lady Diana Spencer.
She was the daughter of Edward Hyde, later Earl of Clarendon. Despite her respectable parentage, she was not considered a suitable wife, and the marriage was kept secret until Anne was visibly pregnant; in all they had eight children, but only two daughters survived.: Henrietta Stuart - January 13, - November 15, Catherine Stuart - February 9, - December 5, When James became King, the fact that his heirs presumptive were his daughters Mary and Anne, who were both Protestants, made the prospect of a Catholic King more acceptable to the British public.
Catherine Laura Stuart - January 10, - October 3, Isabelle Stuart - August 28, - March 2, Charlotte Maria Stuart - August 16, - October 16, James also had a number of illegitimate children, mostly by his long-standing mistress, Arabella Churchill. There was no evidence for this, and the legitimacy of the Prince could not be seriously challenged.
William of Orange The dissatisfaction with James, coupled with alarm at the birth of a Catholic heir, led to a conspiracy to replace him with his estranged daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, both dedicated Protestants.
In William landed in England at Brixham with a large Dutch army, the English army deserted to his side, and James was left with no supporters. On December 11, he was forced to flee Britain, an event that effectively ended his reign. The Estates of Scotland followed this decision on April 11, James continued to reign in Ireland until the Battle of the Boyne on July 1, His apparently cowardly behaviour during a succession of Jacobite defeats in the island had won him no friends.
After this final defeat, James fled to France. He never officially abdicated and continued to claim the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland until his death. However, he was reduced to little more than a pawn in the great series of intrigues between Louis and William.The first English monarch of the Stuarts, James I of England and VI of Scotland, succeeded to the throne of England when Elizabeth I died.
instead authorising use of the King James Bible that is still in existence today. James II ( – ) James II succeeded his brother Charles to the throne. After the Restoration he had served as. Day 1(*) Unit: Anglo-Saxon/Old English. 1. (*)Print out your grading sheet for the first quarter or use the Excel version.
1. Keep a vocabulary notebook and/or notecards for terms you will be . Prior to the Dissolution of the Monasteries the Abbot of the Abbey of St Edmund upheld the King's law and imposed, and collected, taxes in the whole of the area later to become West Suffolk. Anne was the second daughter of James, duke of York (King James II, –88), and Anne Hyde.
Although her father was a Roman Catholic, It was Sarah who persuaded Anne to side with the Protestant ruler William III of Orange, stadtholder of the Netherlands, when William overthrew James II in Watch video · Charles II of England Occupation King Birth Date May 29, Death Date February 6, Place of Birth St.
James' Palace, London, England, United Kingdom Charles II of England regardbouddhiste.com: May 29, World History - English Revolution.
Mrs. Fratto. STUDY. PLAY. James II. King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland. He was unpopular because he was Catholic and had a son who was also Catholic who could take the throne.
He was overthrown by his son-in-law William of .