Abstract The civil service in Europe has been undergoing profound changes since the s. Two major developments are responsible for these changes: These challenges have caused reactions on the part of governments which are rather similar in most European countries: Another strategy could be to reduce the salaries of public servants; however, this strategy is not easy to follow because there is a danger of state employment losing its attractiveness.
The Visigoths were crushed and for almost three centuries a revived Christian kingdom, Asturias, could do little more than cling to the north coast and the northwest corner of Iberia. Nevertheless, more than one Christian state eventually organized and gradually reconquered the peninsula.
There were at different times up to five different Spanish Christian kingdoms. These were all eventually consolidated. Spain was sometimes styled an "empire. Alfonso never went to Germany, distracted by civil war and rebellionand it was already clear that the Pope had no intention of crowning him.
The entire peninsula can be called, in a geographical sense, without ambiguity, Iberia. Similarly calling the whole peninsula "Spain," however casually, can evoke impassioned responses. Spain now is a country that is distinct from Portugal.
On the other hand, in Latin, Hispania was the whole peninsula.
It may have been Philip II who issued the first decree for "these realms of Spain. So the official use of "Spain" seems to have initially and in fact been for the whole peninsula. When Portugal revolted and became independent again inthe rest of the Kingdom simply continued, down to the present, under the common name.
So what "Spain" means actually depends on what we are talking about and when. It has only really meant a political part of Iberia since Another issue is with the names of the Kings. Since the major languages of Christendom use many of the same names, it is often possible to give translations.
This was formerly the most common, so that in English one talked about "Johns" and "Peters" in the Spanish Kingdoms. This is now sometimes frowned upon, but the desire to use the "native" language of the country in question can produce some gaffs: There is also the complication that the Kings of Navarre marry into French Royalty and nobility and so after are all French speaking.
The written langugage during much of the period, of course, would just be Latin. Simply using "John" would seem to be the least confusing and the most revealing. However, Portuguese and Spanish Castilian versions are given for most of the names somewhat irregularly.To search ONLY the page you are now reading, use Ctrl + F to open a search window.
1. message to congress reviewing the broad objectives and accomplishments of the administration. The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good . Compare the democratic forms of government in the United States and Great Britain.
Compare the democratic forms of government in the United States and Great Britain. History and . What is the difference between Canadian and American culture? They are two distinct cultures, just like British and French cultures are distinct and different.
The OP is either a troll, an ignorant idiot, or a racist. The War of was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June to February Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars; in the United States and Canada, it is seen as a war in its own right..
From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain .