Reference Definitions Some of the terms within this glossary will be followed by initials or will have references or comments at the end of the definition to help broaden the recognition and understanding of the term. An explanation of those references is as follows:
Bombarding Cf by 10B or 11B and of Am with 18O Like the lanthanidesthe actinides form a family of elements with similar properties. Within the actinides, there are two overlapping groups: Compared to the lanthanides, which except for promethium are found in nature in appreciable quantities, most actinides are rare.
The majority of them do not even occur in nature, and of those that do, only thorium and uranium do so in more than trace quantities. The most abundant or easily synthesized actinides are uranium and thorium, followed by plutonium, americium, actinium, protactinium, neptunium, and curium.
The prevailing view that dominated early research into transuranics was that they were regular elements in the 7th period, with thorium, protactinium and uranium corresponding to 6th-period hafniumtantalum and tungstenrespectively.
Synthesis of transuranics gradually undermined this point of view. By an observation that curium failed to exhibit oxidation states above 4 whereas its supposed 6th period homolog, platinumcan reach oxidation state of 6 prompted Glenn Seaborg to formulate a so-called "actinide hypothesis".
Studies of known actinides and discoveries of further transuranic elements provided more data in support of this point of view, but the phrase "actinide hypothesis" the implication being that a "hypothesis" is something that has not been decisively proven remained in active use by scientists through the late s.
The first method is most important for applications, as only neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors allows the production of sizeable amounts of synthetic actinides; however, it is limited to relatively light elements. The advantage of the second method is that elements heavier than plutonium, as well as neutron-deficient isotopes, can be obtained, which are not formed during neutron irradiation.
This non-observation was attributed to spontaneous fission owing to the large speed of the products and to other decay channels, such as neutron emission and nuclear fission.
Uranium and thorium were the first actinides discovered. Uranium was identified in by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in pitchblende ore. He named it after the planet Uranus which had been discovered only eight years earlier. Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound likely sodium diuranate by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.
He then reduced the obtained yellow powder with charcoal, and extracted a black substance that he mistook for metal. He also isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with metallic potassium.
This value was confirmed experimentally in by K. By reduction of thorium tetrachloride with potassium, he isolated the metal and named it thorium after the Norse god of thunder and lightning Thor.
He described the substance in as similar to titanium  and in as similar to thorium. This view instead credits the work of Friedrich Oskar Gieselwho discovered a radioactive element named emanium that behaved similarly to lanthanum.
* Global warming is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary of Science as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.”. The actinide / ˈ æ k t ɪ n aɪ d / or actinoid / ˈ æ k t ɪ n ɔɪ d / (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to , actinium through lawrencium.. Strictly speaking, both actinium and lawrencium have been labeled as group 3 elements, but both elements are often included in any general discussion of the chemistry of the. phases such as oxides can enhance the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity. Modification of a bulky to remove any carbonates. a) Metal oxides nanoparticles almost completely decomposed into CuO.
This metal was discovered not by its own radiation but by the radiation of the daughter products.This glossary provides the wildland fire community a single source for wildland fire and incident management terminology commonly used by the NWCG and its subgroups.
Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer's idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer - .
Metal(X) Carbonate + Oxygen (and Heat) Carbon Dioxide + Metal(X) Oxide. Decomposition of a carbonate with an acid.
Apparatus: Carbonates are decomposed by heat into the corresponding oxides and carbon dioxide. The temperature of 2 pages 17 Mar/ /5(1). The glossary that follows assumes a definition of ecology--the study of interactions between organisms and their environment--much wider than what fits under the field's habitual statistical regardbouddhiste.cominism and ecopsychology are mentioned, for example, as are terms from organic gardening and permaculture.
AIM: To carry out a lab experiment to decompose a carbonate using heat, also to carry out appropriate tests for the formation of products as a result of this decomposition. DISSCUSION: Carbonates are decomposed by heat into the corresponding oxides and carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is a linear compound composed of a carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms. It exists predominately as a gas and is a product of the human metabolism.
Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, in which it readily and reversibly converts to carbonic acid.