Puberty Upper body of a teenage boy. The structure has changed to resemble an adult form. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys.
Introduction A concise and universally accepted definition of poverty is elusive largely because it affects many aspects of the human conditions, including physical, moral and psychological.
Different criteria have, therefore, been used to conceptualize poverty. Most analyses follow the conventional view of poverty as a result of insufficient income for securing basic goods and services. Others view poverty, in part, as a function of education, health, life expectancy, child mortality etc.
Blackwood and Lynchidentify the poor, using the criteria of the levels of consumption and expenditure. Further, Senrelates poverty to entitlements which are taken to be the various bundles of goods and services over which one has command, taking into cognizance the means by which such goods are acquired for example, Money and Coupons etc and the availability of the needed goods.
Poverty may arise from changes in average income or changes in the distribution of income. Let us for instance, assume a relationship between the poverty line L below which an individual is poor and the average incomes of the population Y.
The poverty index will decrease increase as L Y increases decreases. Since higher average incomes are above the poverty line, other things being equal there will be less poverty.
Compare for instance, two countries with identical mean incomes and poverty linebut with one having a wider area ofdistribution of incomes that is one with greater incomeinequality ; poverty will generally be greater in the country with higher inequality, since there will be relatively more people with incomes lower than the poverty line L.
Thus, the distribution of income has an important influence on poverty. Social science literature is replete with attempts by economists and social scientists to conceptualize the phenomenon of poverty. It explains poverty in material terms and specifically employs consumption -based categories to explain the extent and depth of poverty, and establish who is and who is not poor.
Thus, the poor are conceived as those individuals or households in a particular society, incapable of purchasing a specified basket of basic goods and services. Impaired access to productive resources agricultural land, physical capital and financial assets leads to absolute low income, unemployment, undernourishment etc.
Inadequate endowment of human capital is also a major cause of poverty. Generally, impaired access to resources shifts the focus on poverty and it curtails the capability of individual to convert available productive resources to a higher quality of life Sen, ;Adeyeye,;Ogwumike, Poverty can also be the outcome of inefficient use of common resources.
This may result from weak policy environment, inadequate infrastructure, weak access to technology, credit etc. In Sub-Sahara Africa SSAthe agricultural sector was exploited through direct and indirect taxation throughout the colonial and post-colonial decades leading to poor growth performance of the sector, heightened rural -urban migration and employment crisis.
In urban SSA, Silver suggests three paradigms of exclusion: Poverty can be structural chronic or transient.
The former is defined as persistent or permanent socio-economic deprivations and is linked to a host of factors such as limited productive resources, lack of skills for gainful employment, endemic socio-political and cultural factors and gender. Transient poverty is more reversible but can become structural if it persists.
It is generally agreed that in conceptualizing poverty, low income or low consumption is its symptom.Published: Mon, 5 Dec Since the s Britain has gone through an intense period of accelerated social and cultural transitions.
These changes come from the results of the disintegration of the British Empire, the expansion of the Commonwealth and the movement of people from various nationalities, languages and cultures.
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The Problem Of Personal Identity - This ability is what he defines as consciousness. With these two conditions in place, Locke is then able to give us his definition of personal identity, namely “the sameness of a rational being.
In the last decades, autoimmune diseases have experienced a dramatic increase in Western countries. The involvement of environmental factors is strongly suspected to . The paper discusses the concept of poverty and elucidates the various methods of measurement used in evaluating poverty.
Causes of poverty in Nigeria were also brought into perspective. It was concluded that inadequate economic growth is the main cause of poverty in Nigeria.