Emphasis on developing problem-solving skills and programming techniques. Topics include control structures, procedural abstraction, and introductory linear data structures. A total of 3 credits may be earned, but no more than 1 in any one semester or term.
Other forms of the invention encompass other processes, improved packets and packet ensembles, integrated circuitschipsets DSPMCUcomputer cardsinformation storage articles, systems, computers, gateways, routers, cellular telephone handsets, wireless base stations, appliances ,and packet networksand other forms as disclosed and claimed.
Description This application is a divisional of prior application Ser. This application incorporates application Ser. The invention is implemented in numerous different embodiments in integrated circuits, chipsets, printed circuit cards, computers, networks, servers, routers, telephone handsets, base stations, gateways, and PBXs, as well as methods and processes of manufacture and operation of each of the foregoing, and improved packets and packet ensembles.
The Internet is a packet-switched network versus the more traditional circuit switched voice network. The routing decision regarding an IP packet's next hop is made on a hop-by-hop basis.
The full path followed by a packet is usually unknown to the transmitter, but it can be determined after the fact. Packet loss over the Internet has been shown to be highly correlated. Kostas, Borella, et al.
Voice codecs provide some form of packet loss-concealment, or packet loss mitigation, by utilizing coding and packetization schemes over a single flow. These schemes employ some combination of buffering and redundancy forward error correction FECmulti-rate encoding, etc. The redundant portion of the coding is inserted into some other packet in the single flow.
TCP is a transport layer 4 protocol and IP is a network layer 3 protocol. IP is unreliable in the sense that it does not guarantee that a sent packet will reach its destination.
TCP is provided on top of IP to guarantee packet delivery by tagging each packet. Lost or out of order packets are detected and then the source supplies a responsive retransmission of the packet to destination. Because the packet retransmission process takes significant time, TCP may not satisfactorily solve problems in quality transmission of audio, also known as Voice over IP or VOP Voice over Packetand video and other media where maximum tolerable packet delay is not high.
UDP is a transport layer 4 protocol that eliminates the overhead of the retransmission mechanism of TCP but does not make a guarantee that every sent packet will be received. However, the policies of different subnetworks domains of different companies do vary. As a packet traverses the Internet it typically crosses various companies' domains.
These companies require and need to track payment for various classes of services, so permission and authentication mechanisms are keyed to the various service policies of the companies. Over long distances typical of the Internet this condition does not usually pertain.
RSVP is utilized in enterprise networks. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In one form of the invention, a process of sending real-time information from a sender computer to a receiver computer coupled to the sender computer by a packet network wherein packets sometimes become lost, includes steps of directing packets containing the real-time information from the sender computer by at least one path in the packet network to the receiver computer, and directing packets containing information dependent on the real-time information from the sender computer by at least one path—diversity path in the packet network to the same receiver computer.
Other forms of the invention encompass other processes, improved packets and packet ensembles, integrated circuits, chipsets, computer add-in cards, information storage articles, systems, computers, gateways, routers, cellular telephone handsets, wireless base stations, appliances, and packet networks, and other forms as claimed.
Multiple paths reduce the correlation of packet loss, delay, and delay jitter. Various embodiments avoid some congestion areas by routing through multiple independent paths, thus mitigating some of the packet loss and delay jitter that would be experienced by conventional methods and conventional apparatus using only a single path.
Various path-diversity solutions described herein can be used in conjunction with many of the existing techniques that attempt to deal with packet loss and delay jitter. This gain is similar in some ways and different in others from the multipath gain in wireless.
Path diversity keeps QoS high. A command or trigger mechanism initiates path diversity in some embodiments. Providing multiple paths between a single source and destination confers a path diversity gain that can be leveraged by codecs.
Extensions are discussed that cover class of service CoS and quality of service QoS on the paths. The packets in each flow traverse separate paths from packets in other flows for at least some of the hops between the source and destination.
Having multiple paths reduces the correlation of packet loss, delay, delay jitter, etc. For example, one can leverage the work done with path diversity in the wireless arena.
How To Achieve Flow Diversity: Currently there is little work done in path selection for flows. The Internet does not support path selection very well either.
IP has the concept of source routing, but this feature is limited and purposely not supported in many instances due to perceived risks to network security. A few mechanisms that may be used by herein improved processes to achieve flow diversity are nonexhaustively listed next.
Use some protocol to reserve resources through multiple paths.
How these paths are discovered is discussed later herein. Since RSVP guarantees quality of service already, it is not a primary locus, though it is a possible one, for application of the path diversity approach proposed here.The place management facility provides finding services to find at least one of participants, identities, presences, virtual places, connections, locations, and resources.
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