It is organized into four categories:
History[ edit ] Modern English spelling developed from about AD onwards, when—after three centuries of Norman French rule—English gradually became the official language of England again, although very different from beforehaving incorporated many words of French origin battle, beef, button, etc.
Early writers of this new English, such as Geoffrey Chaucergave it a fairly consistent spelling system, but this was soon diluted by Chancery clerks who re-spelled words based on French orthography[ citation needed ].
English spelling consistency was dealt a further blow when William Caxton brought the printing press to London in Having lived in mainland Europe for the preceding 30 years, his grasp of the English spelling system had become uncertain.
The Belgian assistants he brought to help him set up his business had an even poorer command of it. The many editions of these Bibles were all printed outside England by people who spoke little or no English.
They often changed spellings to match their Dutch orthography. Examples include the silent h in ghost to match Dutch gheest, which later became geestaghast, ghastly and gherkin.
The silent h in other words—such as ghospel, ghossip and ghizzard—was later removed. Some of these proposals were: James Howell in his Grammar of recommended minor changes to spelling, such as changing logique to logic, warre to war, sinne to sin, toune to town and tru to true.
From the 16th century AD onward, English writers who were scholars of Greek and Latin literature tried to link English words to their Graeco-Latin counterparts. They did this by adding silent letters to make the real or imagined links more obvious. Thus det became debt to link it to Latin debitumdout became doubt to link it to Latin dubitaresissors became scissors and sithe became scythe as they were wrongly thought to come from Latin scindereiland became island as it was wrongly thought to come from Latin insulaake became ache as it was wrongly thought to come from Greek akhosand so forth.
In his play Love's Labour's Lostthe character Holofernes is "a pedant " who insists that pronunciation should change to match spelling, rather than simply changing spelling to match pronunciation. For example, Holofernes insists that everyone should pronounce the unhistorical B in words like doubt and debt.
An bulletin, written wholly in reformed spelling click to enlarge. The second period started in the 19th century and appears to coincide with the development of phonetics as a science. It included an essay on the oddities of modern orthography and his proposals for reform.
Many of the spellings he used, such as color and center, would become hallmarks of American English. InWebster began compiling an expanded dictionary. Although it drew some protest, the reformed spellings were gradually adopted throughout the United States.
These were proposals for a new phonetic alphabet.
Although unsuccessful, they drew widespread interest. By the s, the philological societies of Great Britain and America chose to consider the matter. Inthe American National Education Association adopted its own list of 12 words to be used in all writings: The SSB's original 30 members consisted of authors, professors and dictionary editors.
However, in Decemberthe U. Congress passed a resolution and the old spellings were reintroduced. The handbook noted that every reformed spelling now in general use was originally the overt act of a lone writer, who was followed at first by a small minority.
Thus, it encouraged people to "point the way" and "set the example" by using the reformed spellings whenever they could. In Britain, the cause of spelling reform was promoted from by the Simplified Spelling Society and attracted a number of prominent supporters.
One of these was George Bernard Shaw author of Pygmalion and much of his considerable will was left to the cause.
Among members of the society, the conditions of his will gave rise to major disagreements, which hindered the development of a single new system. Over a two-month spell init introduced 80 respelled words, including tho, thru, thoro, agast, burocrat, frate, harth, herse, iland, rime, staf and telegraf.
A March editorial reported that two-thirds of readers preferred the reformed spellings. Another claimed that "prejudice and competition" was preventing dictionary makers from listing such spellings.
Over the next 40 years, however, the newspaper gradually phased out the respelled words. Inhe again had the opportunity, and this time it passed the second reading by 65 votes to Inthis led to James Pitman 's Initial Teaching Alphabetintroduced into many British schools in an attempt to improve child literacy.
After several decades, the experiment was discontinued. In his book Spelling Reform: This reform had some popularity in Australia. For example, he believes that it does not matter whether words such as "accommodate" and "tomorrow" are spelled with double letters.
Advocates note that spelling reforms have taken place already,  just slowly and often not in an organized way.This past semester at MIT I took a really wonderful class called “Feminist Political Thought” which had a very open ended essay assignment.
I wrote a history of the word “Bitch,” and several of my classmates requested to read the whole paper so I thought I’d post it here. A History of English Language Teaching is a remarkable book that traces its subject all the way from the 14th century to the present day, offering a grand sweep through the major trends and events in English language description and teaching, as well as an impressive level of detail on some of the individuals that have shaped this history, and their methods and materials.
Course. AP English Language and Composition is a course in the study of rhetoric taken in high school.
Many schools offer this course primarily to juniors and the AP English Literature and Composition course to seniors. Other schools reverse the order, and some offer both courses to .
The History of the English Language Essay Words | 9 Pages. History of the English Language In this paper I will discuss where and how the English language originated and how it has spread to become one of the most spoken languages in the world.
Development of Old English Language Old English language had been developed through many components with its origin from the history. Although, many historians believed and developed the hypothesis that English language and other languages in many parts of Europe were identical because of evidences of similarities of many words.
Secure Exam for Classroom Use A secure AP English Language and Composition Exam is available on the AP Course Audit regardbouddhiste.com access, sign in to your AP Course Audit account, and click on the Secure Documents link in the Resources section of your Course Status page.