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Non-associative learning[ edit ] Non-associative learning refers to "a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus. Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptationfatigueor injury do not qualify as non-associative learning.
Habituation Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which the strength or probability of a response diminishes when the stimulus is repeated.
The response is typically a reflex or unconditioned response. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinctionwhich is an associative process. In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by a reward. An example of habituation can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl or similar predator is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator.
Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced or the same one removed and re-introducedthe birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place.
The habituation process is faster for stimuli that occur at a high rather than for stimuli that occur at a low rate as well as for the weak and strong stimuli, respectively. Sensitization Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus Bell et al.
After a while, this stimulation creates a warm sensation that eventually turns painful. The pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful.
Active learning Experiential learning is more efficient than passive learning like reading or listening. Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not.
By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects. Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they verbalize understandings. This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time. Studies within metacognition have proven the value in active learning, claiming that the learning is usually at a stronger level as a result.
Conversely, passive learning and direct instruction are characteristics of teacher-centered learning or traditional education. The research works on the human learning process as a complex adaptive system developed by Peter Belohlavek showed that it is the concept that the individual has that drives the accommodation process to assimilate new knowledge in the long-term memorydefining learning as an intrinsically freedom-oriented and active process.
In operant conditioning, a behavior that is reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less likely to occur in the presence of that stimulus.
Classical conditioning The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response with another previously neutral stimulus which does not normally evoke the response.
Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus". The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response.
The classic example is Ivan Pavlov and his dogs. Meat powder is the unconditioned stimulus US and the salivation is the unconditioned response UR. Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the meat powder. The first time Pavlov rang the bell, the neutral stimulus, the dogs did not salivate, but once he put the meat powder in their mouths they began to salivate.
After numerous pairings of bell and food, the dogs learned that the bell signaled that food was about to come, and began to salivate when they heard the bell.
Once this occurred, the bell became the conditioned stimulus CS and the salivation to the bell became the conditioned response CR. Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in many species.
For example, it is seen in honeybees, in the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Watson's work was very influential and paved the way for B.
Skinner 's radical behaviorism.
Watson's behaviorism and philosophy of science stood in direct contrast to Freud and other accounts based largely on introspection.
Watson's view was that the introspective method was too subjective, and that we should limit the study of human development to directly observable behaviors. InWatson published the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views," in which he argued that laboratory studies should serve psychology best as a science.Basic English is a simplified version of English language created by Charles Kay Ogden.
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