References and Further Reading 1.
Who Were the Presocratic Philosophers? Our understanding of the Presocratics is complicated by the incomplete nature of our evidence. Instead, we are dependent on later philosophers, historians, and compilers of collections of ancient wisdom for disconnected quotations fragments and reports about their views testimonia.
In some cases, these sources had direct access to the works of the Presocratics, but in many others, the line is indirect and often depends on the work of Hippias, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Simplicius, and other ancient philosophers who did have such access.
The sources for the fragments and testimonia made selective use of the material available to them, in accordance with their own special, and varied, interests in the early thinkers.
For analyses of the doxographic tradition, and the influence of Aristotle and Theophrastus on later sources, see MansfeldRuniaand Mansfeld and Runiaa, and b.
Although any account of a Presocratic thinker has to be a reconstruction, we should not be overly pessimistic about the possibility of reaching a historically responsible understanding of these early Greek thinkers.
The term, coined in the eighteenth century, was made current by Hermann Diels in the nineteenth, and was meant to mark a contrast between Socrates who was interested in moral problems, and his predecessors, who were supposed to be primarily concerned with cosmological and physical speculation.
Moreover, several of the early Presocratic philosophy thinkers explored questions about ethics and the Presocratic philosophy way to live a human life. The term may also suggest that these thinkers are somehow inferior to Socrates and Plato, of interest only as their predecessors, and its suggestion of archaism may imply that philosophy only becomes interesting when we arrive at the classical period of Plato and Aristotle.
Some scholars now deliberately avoid the term, but if we take it to refer to the early Greek Presocratic philosophy who were not influenced by the views of Socrates, whether his predecessors or contemporaries, there is probably no harm in using it.
|Anaximenes | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||Life and Work Anaxagoras, son of Hegesibulus or Eubuluswas a native of Clazomenae, on the west coast of what is now Turkey.|
A second problem lies in referring to these thinkers as philosophers. That is almost certainly not how they could have described themselves. As the fragment from Heraclitus shows, the early Greek philosophers thought of themselves as inquirers into many things, and the range of their inquiry was vast.
They had views about the nature of the world, and these views encompass what we today call physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology, astronomy, embryology, and psychology and other areas of natural inquiryas well as theology, metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics.
In the earliest of the Presocratics, the Milesians, it can indeed be difficult to discern the strictly philosophical aspects of the views in the evidence available to us. Nevertheless, despite the danger of misunderstanding and thus underestimating these thinkers because of anachronism, there is an important sense in which it is quite reasonable to refer to them as philosophers.
The questions that the early Greek philosophers asked, the sorts of answers that they gave, and the views that they had of their own inquiries were the foundation for the development of philosophy as it came to be defined in the work of Plato and Aristotle and their successors.
Perhaps the fundamental characteristic is the commitment to explain the world in terms of its own inherent principles. Hesiod tells the traditional story of the Olympian gods, beginning with Chaos, a vague divine primordial entity or condition.
From Chaos, a sequence of gods is generated, often by sexual congress, but sometimes no cause for their coming to be is given. The divine figures that thus arise are often connected with a part of the physical universe, or with some aspect of human experience, so his theogony is also a cosmogony an account of the generation of the world.
The divinities and the associated parts of the world come to be and struggle violently among themselves; finally Zeus triumphs and establishes and maintains an order of power among the others.
The earliest rulers of the universe are violently overthrown by their offspring Ouranos is overthrown by Cronos, Cronos by Zeus. Zeus insures his continued power by swallowing his first consort Metis counsel or wisdom ; by this he prevents the predicted birth of rivals and acquires her attribute of wisdom Theogony — In a second poem, Works and Days, Hesiod pays more attention to human beings, telling the story of earlier, greater creatures who died out or were destroyed by themselves or Zeus.
Humans were created by Zeus, are under his power, and are subject to his judgment and to divine intervention for either good or ill. A good discussion of the Hesiodic myths in relation to Presocratic philosophy can be found in McKirahan Burkert surveys influence from the east on the development of Presocratic philosophy, especially the myths, astronomy, and cosmogony of the Babylonians, Persians, and Egyptians.
The Presocratics reject this account, instead seeing the world as a kosmos, an ordered natural arrangement that is inherently intelligible and not subject to supra-natural intervention.
A striking example is Xenophanes 21B Calling the Presocratics philosophers also suggests that they share a certain outlook with one another; an outlook that can be contrasted with that of other early Greeks.
Although scholars disagree about the extent of the divergence between the early Greek philosophers and their non-philosophical predecessors and contemporaries, it is evident that Presocratic thought exhibits a difference not only in its understanding of the nature of the world, but also in its view of the sort of explanation of it that is possible.
This is clear in Heraclitus. Although Heraclitus asserts that those who love wisdom must be inquirers into many things, inquiry alone is not sufficient.
At 22B40 he rebukes four of his predecessors: For Heraclitus there is an underlying principle that unites and explains everything.
It is this that others have failed to see and understand. According to Heraclitus, the four have amassed a great deal of information — Hesiod was a traditional source of information about the gods, Pythagoras was renowned for his learning and especially views about how one ought to live, Xenophanes taught about the proper view of the gods and the natural world, Hecataeus was an early historian — but because they have failed to grasp the deeper significance of the facts available to them, their unconnected bits of knowledge do not constitute understanding.
Just as the world is a kosmos, an ordered arrangement, so human knowledge of that world must be ordered in a certain way. He seems to have lived around the beginning of the 6th c. Aristotle mentions that some people, before Thales, placed great importance on water, but he credits Thales with declaring water to be the first cause Metaphysics b27—33and he then later raises the question of whether perhaps Hesiod was the first to look for a cause of motion and change b23ff.But philosophy is also reflectively concerned with the methods its practitioners employ in the effort to resolve such questions.
Emerging as a central feature of Western culture, philosophy is a tradition of thinking and writing about particular issues in special ways.
A History of Western Philosophy Ralph McInerny Volume I Foreword / Acknowledgements • Part I: Presocratic Philosophy o Chapter I: Before Philosophy A. The Quarrel Between Philosophy and Poetry B. The Theological Poets.
It's a highly competent job by an analytic philosopher. The arguments of the Presocratics are reconstructed, sometimes with guesswork: they are presented analytically and indeed sometimes with the help of the apparatus of mathematical logic (to the good, if you ask me: it .
According to the surviving sources on his life, Anaximenes flourished in the mid 6th century B.C.E. and died about He is the third philosopher of the Milesian School of philosophy, so named because like Thales and Anaximander, Anaximenes was an inhabitant of Miletus, in Ionia (ancient Greece.
The Concept of Presocratic Philosophy: Its Origin, Development, and Significance - Kindle edition by André Laks, Glenn Most. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Concept of Presocratic Philosophy: Its Origin, Development, and Significance.
The Presocratic Philosophers (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, Nahm, Milton C., Selections from Early Greek Philosophy, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., (in French) Alain Sournia.