Politicians, aid workers, academics, and the press often approach the word from different angles, and with varying ideas of the rights, roles, and responsibilities the term implies. Such divergent views fuel the global debate about how best to manage and protect refugees, who by some counts number over 13 million. The complexity of the problem, as well as the many and vocal interest groups concerned, makes it difficult to sort out global refugee issues without answering two main questions.
It refers to "shelter or protection from danger or distress", from Latin fugere, "to flee", and refugium, "a taking [of] refuge, place to flee back to". In Western history, the term was first applied to French Huguenotsafter the Edict of Fontainebleauwho again migrated from France after the Edict of Nantes revocation The same form of protection is foreseen for displaced people who, without being refugees, are nevertheless exposed, if returned to their countries of origin, to death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatments.
The idea that a person who sought sanctuary in a holy place could not be harmed without inviting divine retribution was familiar to the ancient Greeks and ancient Egyptians.
Similar laws were implemented throughout Europe in the Middle Ages. The related concept of political exile also has a long history: Ovid was sent to Tomis ; Voltaire was sent to England. By the Peace of Westphalianations recognized each other's sovereignty. However, it was not until the advent of romantic nationalism in late 18th-century Europe that nationalism gained sufficient prevalence for the phrase country of nationality to become practically meaningful, and for border crossing to require that people provide identification.
Turkish refugees from EdirneOne million Armenians were forced to leave their homes in Anatolia inand many either died or were murdered on their way to Syria. The term "refugee" sometime applies to people who might fit the definition outlined by the Convention, were it applied retroactively.
There are many candidates.
The repeated waves of pogroms that swept Eastern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries prompted mass Jewish emigration more than 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in the period — Beginning in the 19th century, Muslim people emigrated to Turkey from Europe.
The first international co-ordination of refugee affairs came with the creation by the League of Nations in of the High Commission for Refugees and the appointment of Fridtjof Nansen as its head.
Nansen and the Commission were charged with assisting the approximately 1, people who fled the Russian Revolution of and the subsequent civil war — p.
It is estimated that aboutRussian refugees became stateless when Lenin revoked citizenship for all Russian expatriates in Over the next several years, the mandate was expanded further to cover Assyrians and Turkish refugees.
The Immigration Act of was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans, especially JewsItalians and Slavswho had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the s.
Its most notable achievement was the Nansen passporta refugee travel documentfor which it was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
The Nansen Office was plagued by problems of financing, an increase in refugee numbers, and a lack of co-operation from some member states, which led to mixed success overall. However, the Nansen Office managed to lead fourteen nations to ratify the Refugee Convention, an early, and relatively modest, attempt at a human rights charter, and in general assisted around one million refugees worldwide.Chancellor Angela Merkel spent a decade amassing political capital.
Now, with the refugee crisis showing no signs of abating, she has decided to spend it. With her legacy in the balance, she has. The refugee crisis is a problem of poverty, not just migration The crux of the issue is that collecting data on refugees has traditionally been the domain of humanitarian organisations, on the.
The world has a serious refugee problem. An unprecedented million people have been forced from home. Among them are nearly million refugees and of these, over half are under the age of The current U.S.
The push for economic growth in recent decades has led to substantial increases in wealth for large numbers of people across the globe. But despite huge gains in global economic output, there is evidence that our current social, political and economic systems . This part of the regardbouddhiste.com web site looks at the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Media coverage is poor and yet there have been millions of refugees and over five million killed since the war began around August Yet the rich country leaders and their media drew everyone’s attention to ethnic Albianians being killed in Kosovo (to gain support for a war there). Food Security & Nutrition around the World Hunger is on the rise. For the third year in a row, there has been a rise in world hunger. The absolute number of undernourished people, i.e. those facing chronic food deprivation, has increased to nearly million in , from around million in
ambassador to the United Nations, Samantha Power, who is the most dispositionally interventionist among Obama’s senior advisers, had argued early for arming Syria’s rebels.
Food Security & Nutrition around the World Hunger is on the rise.
For the third year in a row, there has been a rise in world hunger. The absolute number of undernourished people, i.e. those facing chronic food deprivation, has increased to nearly million in , from around million in The Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa expanded the definition, such as the Association for the Study of the World Refugee Problem, Two-thirds of all refugees around the world have been displaced for over three years, which is known as being in 'protracted displacement'.
50% of refugees.